1World Wide Web Foundation, Open Data Barometer, Fourth Edition, 2016,

2See Open Government Partnership website,, accessed November 30, 2016.

3Andrew Young, Stefaan Verhulst, and Juliet McMurren, “The GovLab Selected Readings on Open Data for Developing Economies,” August 1, 2016,

4See Appendix D for an annotated selection of the key Readings.

5GovLab, “Open Data: What’s in a Name,” January 16, 2014, GovLab Blog,

6Open by Default; Timely and Comprehensive; Accessible and Usable; Comparable and Interoperable; For Improved Governance and Citizen Engagement; For Inclusive Development and Innovation.

7Open Data for Development Network, Open Data for Development: Building an inclusive data revolution, Annual Report, 2015, 11,

8See United Nations Independent Expert Advisory Group on a Data Revolution for Sustainable Development, “A World That Counts, Mobilizing the Data Revolution,” 2014,

9At the same time, there is a growing recognition of open data’s potential to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The World Bank, for instance, has explored the various ways in which open data could help to make progress toward the SDGs. Similarly, a recent White Paper by the Open Data Institute (ODI) concludes: “Open data can make an impact across the globe. Its role in combating development challenges of the next 15 years, both as a tool for measuring progress and in finding solutions, is becoming more clear.” See The World Bank, “Open Data for Sustainable Development,” Policy Note, August 2015,; and Open Data Institute, Supporting Sustainable Development with Open Data, 2015, 3,

10Tim Davies, for instance, notes that, “researchers and other users outside of government may highlight inaccuracies and inconsistencies between datasets” as a result of access to open data, and thereby improving data quality and usefulness. Tim Davies, “Open Data in Developing Countries: Emerging insights from Phase I,” Open Data Research, July 15, 2014, 1 - Synthesis - Full Report-print.pdf.

11Aspasia Papaloi and Dimitris Gouscos, “Parliamentary Information Visualization as a Means for Legislative Transparency and Citizen Empowerment,” Journal of Democracy and Open Government, 2013,

12“By using common open repositories, public administrations can save time and money from the automisation of internal data exchange,” Raimondo Lemma, Federico Morando and Michele Osella, “Breaking Public Administrations’ Data Silos: The case of Open-DAI, and a comparison between open data platforms,” Journal of Democracy & Open Government, 2014,

13Jae-Nam Lee, Juyeon Ham and Byounggu Choi, “Effect of Government Data Openness on a Knowledge-based Economy,” Procedia Computer Science, 91, 2016.

14Ali Clare, David Sangokoya, Stefaan Verhulst and Andrew Young, “Open Contracting and Procurement In Slovakia,” GovLab, Accessed October 25, 2016,

15World Bank, World Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends, World Bank, 2016, 4,

16Laura Dabbish, et al., “Social Coding in GitHub: Transparency and collaboration in an open software repository,” Proceedings of the ACM 2012 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, February 11, 2012,

17Dietmar Harhoff and Karim R. Lakhani (eds.), Revolutionizing Innovation: Users, communities, and open innovation, Boston: MIT Press, 2016.

18See GovLab, “Open Data: What’s in a Name,” January 16, 2014, GovLab Blog,

19See also (in Spanish), Silvana Fumega, “Algunas Ideas para ‘Debates Conceptuales sobre el Gobierno Abierto,’” September 25, 2016,

22Open Government Partnership, “Open Government Declaration,”

23See Matthew L. Smith and Katherine M.A. Reilly, eds., Open Development: Networked innovations in international development, MIT Press, 2013,


26Jonathan Gray, “Five Ways Open Data Can Boost Democracy Around the World,” The Guardian, February 20, 2015,

27Duncan Edwards and Rosie McGee, eds., “Opening Governance,” IDS Bulletin 47, no. 1 (January 2016),

28José M. Alonso, “Measuring Impact of Open Government Data — Open Data Research (South) Meeting Report,” May 24, 2012,

29Martin Hilbert, “Big Data for Development: A review of promises and challenges,” Development Policy Review 34, no. 1 (January 2016),

30See also Andrew Young, Stefaan Verhulst, and Juliet McMurren, “The GovLab Selected Readings on Open Data for Developing Economies,” August 1, 2016,

31The author of a case study from the participating Open Data Institute, which disseminated the results of the effort, notes that, “Whether or not the improved information flow and accessibility to results — enabled by the application of open data — led to increased trust in the election process, or even an improved process, is not something that we can or indeed set out to prove or show empirically, although the outcome of this case study is certainly supportive of that conclusion.” Anna Scott, “Case Study: Burkina Faso’s open elections,” Open Data Institute, October 2016,

32Auralice Graft, Stefaan Verhulst and Andrew Young , “Indonesia’s Kawal Pemilu — Elections: Free fair and open data,” The Governance Lab,

34Jonathan Gray, “Open Budget Data: Mapping the Landscape,”

35“Credit Happy Brazilian Minister Admits Mistake and Resigns,” Merco Press, February 3, 2008,

36Alan Freihof Tygel, Maria Luiza Machado Campos and Celso Alexandre Souza de Alvear, “Teaching Open Data for Social Movements: A research strategy, Journal of Community Informatics, 11, no. 3 (2015),

37See, for example, James Manyika, et al., “Open Data: Unlocking innovation and performance with liquid information,” McKinsey & Company, October 2013,

38Open Data Fact Sheet, “Business, Research and Consulting,” Fall 2016,

39Open Data Fact Sheet, “IT and Geospacial,”

41Empowering Local Communities with Open Data and Interactive Community Mapping,” Caribbean Open Institute,

42Evangelia Berdou, “Mediating Voices and Communicating Realities: Using information crowdsourcing tools, open data initiatives and digital media to support and protect the vulnerable and marginalised,” Institute of Development Studies, 2011,

43Open Data Watch, “Real-time Data for Mapping Forest Change Worldwide,” Data Impacts Case Studies,

44Victor Montoro, “Satellite-based Forest Mapping PlatformHhits Its Stride,” Mongabay, June 26, 2015,

45Andrew Young and Stefaan Verhulst, “Battling Ebola in Sierra Leone: Data sharing to improve crisis response,” GovLab,

46Michael P. Canares, “Opening the Gates: Will open data initiatives make local government in the Philippines more transparent?” Open Data Research Network Report, 2014,

47“UN Reviews Security after Pakistani Taliban ‘Threat,’” BBC News, August 26, 2010,

48See Andrew Young and Stefaan Verhulst, “Kenya’s Open Duka: Open data for transactional transparency,” GovLab,

49See Francois Van Schalkwyk, et al., “Open Data Intermediaries in Developing Countries,” Journal of Community Informatics 12, no. 2 (2016),

50See, for example, Alexandra Wood, David O’Brien, and Urs Gasser, “Privacy and Open Data Research Briefing,” 2016,

51See, for example, Ira Rubinstein and Woodrow Hartzog, “Anonymization and Risk,” 2015,

52Stefan Kulk and Bastiaan van Loenen, “Brave New Open Data World?” International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research, 7, 2012,

53David Burt, et al., “The Cybersecurity Risk Paradox: Impact of social, economic, and technological factors on rates of malware,” Microsoft Security Intelligence Report Special Edition, January 2014,

54See, Michael Canares and Satyarupa Shekhar, “Open Data and Sub-national Governments: Lessons from developing countries,” Open Data for Development, 2016,

55Michael Gurstein, “Open Data: Empowering the empowered or effective data use for everyone?” First Monday, February 2011,


57See, for example, Christian Villum, “Open-Washing”—The Difference between Opening Your Data and Simply Making Them Available,” Open Data International Blog, March 10, 2014,; and “#openwashing…anyone?” Web Foundation Blog, October 31, 2016,

58Benjamin Sovacool and Nathan Andrews, “Does Transparency Matter? Evaluating the governance impacts of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative in Azerbaijan and Liberia,” Resources Policy 45 (2015),

59See the Open Data Charter website,

60François van Schalkwyk, et al., Open Data Intermediaries in Developing Countries,” ODDC, 2015,

61Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, “Aid at a Glance Charts,”

62Tawnya Bosko and Matthew Briskin, "Transparency in Healthcare: Where does it stand?" Management in Healthcare 1, no.1 (2016): 83-96.

63Like similar efforts in Paraguay and Singapore, researchers in India demonstrated how open data can be analyzed using statistical modeling and machine learning to determine how transmission of dengue (or other mosquito-borne illnesses like Zika) could be minimized through increased citizen awareness and/or more strategic allocation of resources. Vandana Srivastava and Biplave Srivastava, “Towards Timely Public Health Decisions to Tackle Seasonal Diseases with Open Government Data,” World Wide Web and Public Health Intelligence: Papers from the AAAI-14 Workshop, June 18, 2015,

64Open Data Watch, “Data Impacts Case Studies: Using satellite and cell phone data to eliminate malaria in Namibia,”

65Seember Nyager, “Can Data Help Us Attain Healthier Lives?” Budeshi, May 15, 2016,

66In regard to the discursive attributes related to the terms “participation,” “empowerment” and “citizenship” in aid, see Andrea Cornwall, Beneficiary, Consumer, Citizen: Perspectives on participation for poverty reduction, Stockholm: Sida, 2000,

67Vanessa Humphries, “Improving Humanitarian Coordination: Common challenges and lessons learned from the cluster approach,” The Journal of Humanitarian Assistance 30 (2013).

68Eleanor Goldbert, “Open Data Platform Lets Aid Groups Respond More Efficiently to Crises,” Huffington Post, May 31, 2016,

69The Humanitarian Data Exchange,

70“Diplomacy and Aid in Africa,” The Economist, April 14, 2016,

71Mzwandile Jacks, “China Emerges as Tanzania’s Major Investor,” Ventures Africa, January 29, 2014,

72“Open Data’s Role in Nepal’s Earthquake,”, 2015,

73Nirab Pudasaini, “Open Source and Open Data’s Role in Nepal Earthquake Relief,”, June 8, 2016,

74Krishna Sapkota, “Exploring the Impacts of Open Aid and Budget Data in Nepal,” Freedom Forum, August 2014,

75Jane Battersby and Jonathan Crush, “Africa’s Urban Food Deserts,” Urban Forum 25, no. 2, Springer Netherlands, 2014.

76See also the Agriculture Open Data Package developed by GODAN,

77“Big Data, Big Prospects: Crunching data for farmers’ climate adaptation,” CCAFS Annual Report 2015,

78CABI, “Plantwise Knowledge Bank Wins Open Data Award for Social Impact,” Plantwise Blog, November 5, 2014,

79Business Call to Action, “Empowering Farmers Through Mobile Communication in West Africa,” The Guardian, October 15, 2014,

80“Fellowship Programme,” School of Data,


82Michael Gurstein, “Open Data: Empowering the empowered or effective data use for everyone,” First Monday, February 2011,; Kevin Donovan, “Seeing Like a Slum: Towards open, deliberative development,” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 13, no. 1, April 26, 2012,


84Benjamin Sovacool and Nathan Andrews, “Does Transparency Matter? Evaluating the governance impacts of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative in Azerbaijan and Liberia,” Resources Policy 45 (2015),

85“Azerbaijan Suspended from the EITI – a Bankwatch and Counter Balance statement,” Bankwatch, March 9, 2017,

86Andrew Young and Stefaan Verhulst, “Mexico’s Mejora Tu Escuela: Empowering citizens to make data-driven decisions about education,” GovLab,


88Stefaan Verhulst, “Research Consortium on the Impact of Open Government Processes,” The GovLab Blog, February 11, 2016,

89The GovLab Academy Canvas,